DSS shows precursor messianism to Christianity.


Frank More Cross [1] believes the doctrine of the two messiahs found at Qumran has its roots in the restoration of a diarchy.

This diarchy consists of a perfect King and a perfect High Priest, who “shall take office standing by the side of the Lord of the whole earth”. (Zechariah4:14).

The offices of old Israel was projected on a new age.

This double messiah shows division of power was already reflected from the time of Moses and Aaron.

David, the ideal king of the old days, is taken as the archetype of the ideal king of the New Age. Zadok, priest of David and high priest in Solomon’s temple, scion of Aaron is the archetype of the new Zadok, the messiah of Aaron.

At Qumran, the Damascus Document, the Rule, the War Scroll, the Testamonia (4Q175) and the Testaments of twelve patriarchs all show the doctrine of the two messiahs.

Sometimes you will get the expression “the messiah of Aaron and the one of Israel” ( CD XIV 19). Aaron being the priestly messiah and Israel is the secular messiah both of the projected diarchy that Frank is talking about.

In Christianity ( and to some degree later Rabbinical Judaism) the doctrine of the diarchy was replaced by the merging of the two figures into one.

This was caused by the destruction of the Temple when the rule of the High Priest was permanently broken.

The Dead Sea Scrolls shine a light on the eschatological salvation and also introduce the figure ( or figures) of a messiah. They clarify the origins of messianic hope that plays such a central position in Christianity.


Melchizedek fits right in there with the binary messianism as he was a priest-king. As Cargill has said,”I came to notice the centrality of Melchizedek and the texts that reference him- Gen.14 and Ps.110 – to every aspect of these various interpretations of binary messianic expectations.”[2].

Florentino García Martínez [3] also sees in the Melchizedek scroll a “heavenly messiah”. (11QMelch col. II 6-9). [please see index at end of this blog to reference the lines in this passage]. One of the most astonishing and controversial documents found at Qumran is the fragment from cave 11, the Melchizedek scroll. This heavenly figure proclaims liberty to the captives at the end of days (eschatological). He sets them free and makes atonement for their sins (lines 5-7). The messenger of Isaiah52:7 is identified in 11QMelch as the anointed of the spirit. (line 18). It is Melchizedek who executed judgment and takes his place as God in the divine council (Psalm82.1; line 9-14).

The text describes the heavenly high priest on the great day of Atonement when psalm82 would be fulfilled. “God has taken his place in the divine council; in the midst of the gods he holds judgment.”(Psalm82.1; line 10).

The protagonist of this text is a heavenly person, an Elohim, called Melchizedek, who at the end of times, will execute justice and be the instrument of salvation. It shows that God was deemed to act through his high priest Melchizedek.

Melchizedek earthly origins serve as a backdrop for his exalted heavenly position. This figure was “king of Salem [i.e., Jerusalem] and priest of God Most High,” as mentioned in Genesis 14:18-20

He was revered by Abraham who paid him tithes, Melchizedek in turn gave Abraham bread and wine.( just like Jesus in the Eucharist). You could compare “the wine and bread brought out by Melchizedek in Gen. 14:18 to a text from Ugarit, which may describe a festival poem used in southern Canaanite Temple ceremony……this gesture [bringing out the bread an wine] on part of Melchizedek should be interpreted as part of an offer of a peace treaty between the King and the man who rescued the people and property of Sodom.” ~Melchizedek, King of Sodom, Cargill, ch1.

The status of Melchizedek is as a heavenly being can be seen in 2Enoch and Psalms 110:4.

It explains in Hebrews how Melchizedek came to be seen as a divine figure.

After Adam every character had a genealogy, naming parents etc. but not so for Melchizedek! Therefore he saw him as an eternal divine figure. In Hebrews it’s stated this person had no genealogical record in a book (Genesis) about genealogical records. Also the author of Hebrews notices his name means “king of righteousness”. (Hebrews7:2-3). He stated he is a high priest just like Jesus not of the Levi order, ie a priest of a different order and an eternal order.(Hebrews5:6). Followers of Jesus wanted to claim him as high priest but this would never be accepted as he was not from the line of Levi. Convenient to have him come from Melchizedek instead!

The author of Hebrews associates Melchizedek to Christ and has established a priestly line distinct from that of Aaron, one from whom Jesus can be derived. ( from the Tribe of Judah, Hebrews 7:14).

“Others know Melchizedek from his apparent mention in Psalms110.4, where the psalm is typically translated, following the LXX, this way: “You are a priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek.” (NSRV). It is this reference to Melchizedek in Ps. 110 (LXX 109) that heavily influenced the later Christian understanding of him. Many Christians know Melchizedek from his multiple mentions in chapters 5-7 in the New Testament epistle to the Hebrews, where he is invoked as proof that Jesus qualifies as both as king of Israel and as high priest, despite not being of the tribe of Levi.” ~Melchizedek, King of Sodom, Cargill, Introduction.

He was King of Righteousness, King of Peace, Son of God, having neither a beginning of days nor an end of life. – Hebrews 7:2-3.

“When David conquered Jerusalem, he conquered a Jebusite city which would have had its own established cult and Temple. Of this nothing is known for certain, although it is widely thought that the mysterious Melchizedek figure who appears in the Abraham stories ( Genesis 14:18-20) is a memory of the Canaanite high god El Elyon in Jerusalem. The Old Testament never condemned El Elyon when Baal and all other Canaanite gods were denounced which suggest that the high god, in some form, retained a place in the new cult of his ancient city.” ~The Gate Of Heaven, Margaret Baker p.15.

“J. C. O’Neills argument in “The Death of the Teacher of Righteousness in Hebrews 13:12-23″ JHC 7/2 ( Fall 2000)” that the letter to the Hebrews seems to be talking about the day of atonement rather than Passover. “Death of Jesus?” in every instance in various old manuscripts there is some funny business about the name Jesus or the title Christ, it’s either that it has a pronoun without a name, others have “Jesus”, others have “Christ”, it implies ( according to O’Neill) that perhaps it wasn’t about Jesus, that it was a Christianized Essene or Qumran document. They were talking about the assassination of the Teacher of Righteousness whom they believed to be resident in heaven offering sacrifices on behalf of his people.”

“The blood ritual and judgment at the heart of time were followed by the great feast of Tabernacles and the enthronement of the Lords anointed in triumph over the judged and defeated powers of evil. This was represented in the Melchizedek text by a quotation from Isaiah: ‘How beautiful on the mountains are the feet of those who bring good news, who proclaim peace, who bring good tidings, who proclaim salvation, who say to Zion, Your Elohim reigns ( Isaiah52:7, 11QMelch)

After the enthronement, the creation was renewed. All this was claimed by the first Christians as giving the truest expression of the meaning of the death and resurrection of Jesus. The fulfillment of the blood ritual was explored in the epistle to the Hebrews as Jesus as the new Melchizedek. Also in Colossians 2:15 with its assertion that the powers of evil had been defeated and in Revelation with the ascension, enthronement and renewal of creation.”~ The Gate of Heaven, Margaret Baker,62-63

The Melchizedek scroll describes a heavenly messiah that became associated with Jesus in Hebrews.


Paul E. Hughes [4] sees a prophetic messiah in the scrolls, figures like Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel. But it is Moses (Exodus2-3) that is the ideal prophet messiah type. Both NT and Qumran use Moses as a prophetic and messianic figure. 4Q175 testimonia text, refers to a prophet like Moses, quoting two texts from Deuteronomy, the second of which is Deut18:18-19, about the raising up of a prophet like Moses in a context that considers the matter of prophetic authority. 4Q377 (Apocrophon Of Moses C) refers to the post-Exodus Sinai revelation imprecating a curse on those who fail to keep “all the commandments of the Lord as spoken by Moses his messiah”.(4Q377 2 4-6).

As studied by Dale Allison, Matthew models his Jesus on the prophet Moses.[5]


The Joseph text 4Q372.

In fragment 1 Joseph is mentioned twice:

‘and in all this Joseph was cast into the hands he did not k[now]’ line 10, ‘in all this Joseph [was given] into the hands of foreigners’ line14-15

The opening words of the psalm ( line 16) has ‘my father and my god’.

The references of God as father is infrequent in Hebrew literature. The NT speaks frequently of God as father.

The text is referring to the fall of the historical northern kingdom. This study suggests the Joseph figure of 4Q372 appears to be a righteous king or `eschatological patriarch’ who quotes in his death-throes Psalms 89 and 22, like the suffering Ephraim Messiah of Pesikta Rabbati 36-37. ( “Messiah Ben Joseph”).

The text is reflective of the tension and polemics of the Jerusalem community and the community centered at Mt Gerizim (ie the Samaritans) who based their claim to legitimacy on their descent from Joseph.

4Q372 is not history but prophecy, a view supported by its verbal forms. Such an interpretation has implications for the dating of a Josephite messiah.

Were 4Q373 to reflect the gospels as a political statement….

It talks of the exile of Joseph and his suffering under foreign rulers. Messiah Ben Joseph belongs to the northern tribes. It speaks of a prayer for restoration of himself and destruction of his enemies occupying his land.

4Q372 suffers the same predicament as the gospels, is it on about a concrete figure or an idealised figure?

A messiah similar to a suffering messiah such as messiah Ben Joseph is also seen in Marks gospel. The disciple in Marks gospel misunderstand that Jesus has to suffer and instead had wanted a glorious messiah.[6]

See also this link:


[1] Notes on the doctrine of the two Messiahs at Qumran and the extracannonical Daniel Apocalypse (4Q246), Frank Moore Cross, Harvard University.

[3] Two Messianic figures in Qumran texts, Florentino García Martínez, University of Groningen.

Both papers above were taken from the book published by Brill:

“Current Research and Technological Developments on Dead Sea Scrolls, Volume 20” edited by Parry & Ricks.

[2] Melchizedek, King Of Sodom,Cargill, discussed in Preface.

[4] Moses’ birth story: A Biblical Matrix for Prophetic Messianism, Paul E.Hughes.

Essay above taken from the book: Eschatology, Messianism and the Dead Sea Scrolls, Craig & Flint.

[5] The New Moses: A Matthean Typology, Dale Allison

[6] The Psalm of 4Q372 1 Within the Context of Second Temple Prayer, EILEEN M. SCHULLER

The Catholic Biblical Quarterly

Vol. 54, No. 1 (January, 1992), pp. 67-79

[7]4Q372 1 and the Continuation of Joseph’s Exile1,

Matthew Thiessen



How Christianity evolved.

Qumranians were exactly the type of sectarian Jewish group that Christianity would have evolved from.

Two types of messianism in Judaism

1) Restorative – get back what you have.

2) Utopian – everything that was there before has to be destroyed to create the perfect new era.


The second type belonged to the DSS best seen in The War Scroll (1QM) which expected the cataclysmic onset of the end of days. Both Yigael Yadin [according to Allegro] and André Dupont-Sommer concluded that Qumran’s War Scroll used tactics and equipment that could be designed to fight First Century CE Romans. Yigael Yadin studied Qumran’s copies of the scroll, “The War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness”, and he determined that they had strategic correspondences with the Roman army manuals of the First Century [see John Allegro (1981), p.138]. André Dupont-Sommer (1961) agreed with Yadin on this and mentioned it at least twice (p. 148, note 1).


The “Messianic Apocalypse” (4Q521) text speaks of a single Messiah figure who will rule heaven and earth. Second, it mentions in the clearest language the expectation of the resurrection of the dead during the time of this Messiah. And third, it contains an exact verbal parallel with the Gospels of Matthew and Luke for identifying of the signs of the Messiah.

For He will heal the wounded, and revive the dead and bring good news to the poor”. (4Q521 fr.2 col2. CF Luke 7:22-23 and Matthew 11:4-5)


In the “son of god” (4Q246) ( see index) the text includes phrases such as “son of God” and “the Most High”, so the two references of Daniel 7:13-14 and Luke 1:32-33, 35 are considered to be related to the fragmental phrases.

According to Margaret Baker in “The Great Angel” the ’son of god’ was indeed an early tradition in Christianity.

“Long before the first Gospel was written down, Paul could quote a Christian hymn, [Philippians2:6-11] presumably one which his readers would recognize, and therefore one which was widely known……

Similarly, at the beginning of Romans, Paul quotes what seems to be an early statement of Christian belief:

the gospel of God … concerning his Son, who was descended from David according to the flesh and designated Son of God in power according to the Spirit of holiness by his resurrection from the dead. (Rom. 1.3-4)

All the titles are there: Son of God, Lord and Messiah.” ~Margaret Baker, The Great Angel,Page2.

The Messianic Rule (of the Congregation) — 1QSa (or 1Q28a)

. . . when God begets the Messiah. . . . And [when] they shall gather for the common table, to eat and to drink new wine. . . . Hereafter shall the Messiah of Israel extend his hand over the bread and all the congregation of the Community [shall utter a] blessing. . . .


There is a Pierced Messiah text 4Q285 (see index) that is part of the DSS fragments that make up the “War of the Messiah”, describing the conclusion of a battle led by the Leader of the Congregation. Both this text and 11Q14 with which it was found to coincide, both could possibly be the conclusion of the War Scroll as the two read coherently.

The Pierced Messiah fragment begins abruptly with an explicit quotation from Isaiah. The passage in question is 10:34–11:1, a text whose Messianic onnotations are well attested from ancient Judaism and early Christianity; in at least one later Rabbinic interpretation the combination of the fall of Lebanon and the shoot from the rod of Jesse is used to link the destruction of the Temple with the coming of the Messiah, it refers to the “stump of Jesse”—the Messiah—from the Branch of David, to a judgement, killing, and cleansing of the land of the dead by the Messiah’s soldiers. Line 4 ‘and he will kill him’ is to be preferred for a combination of both syntactical and contextual reasons. The Messiah orders the leader of the enemy “Kittim” to be slain.

Some more texts showing the messianic fever:

“He will make atonement for all the children of his generation … They will speak many words against him. There will be many [lie]s. They will invent stories about him. He will overthrow his evil generation and there will be [great wrath] when he arises. There will be lying …”

– 4Q541. [Eisenman and Wise (1992), p. 145, emphasis and final sentence division, mine.]

“And ‘the Star’ is the Interpreter of the Law who came to Damascus – as it is written:

‘A Star departs out of Jacob and a Sceptre arises out of Israel’. ‘The Sceptre’ is the King of the whole congregation and when he arises he will destroy all the sons of Seth.”

– Damascus Documenta (a.k.a. 4QDa), Fragment 3, Column IV, Lines 7-10. (My trans.)

“A King shall not be removed from the tribe of Judah. While Israel has the dominion, there will not lack someone who sits on the throne of David – for ‘the staff’ is the covenant of royalty; the thousands of Israel are ‘the feet’ – until the Messiah of Righteousness comes, the Branch [Netzer] of David, for to him and to his heirs25 has been given the covenant of royalty over his people for all everlasting generations …”

– 4Q252, Column V, lines 1-4

“Now from the day when the Unique Teacher was taken, until the overthrow of all the fighting men who turned back with the Man of Lies, (there shall pass) about forty years.”

– Damascus Document (a.k.a. 4QDb) Fragment 2, Lines 13-15 [Dupont-Sommer (1961), p. 140.]

“But they were like blind men, and like men who groping seek their way for twenty years. And God considered their works, for they had sought Him with a perfect heart; and He raised up for them a Teacher of Righteousness to lead them in the way of His heart and to make known to the last generations what He [would do] to the last generation, the congregation of traitors.”

– Damascus Documenta (a.k.a. 4QDa) Column I, Lines 9-12 [Dupont-Sommer (1961), p. 122.]

“There will be violence and great Evils. Oppression will be upon the earth. Peoples will make war, and battles shall multiply among the nations, until the King of the people of God arises. … He will be called the Son of the Great God: by His Name he shall be designated. He will be called the Son of God; they will call him Son of the Most High. … His Kingdom will be an Eternal Kingdom, and he will be Righteous in all his Ways. He will judge the earth in Righteousness, and everyone will make peace. The sword shall cease from the earth, and every nation will bow down to him. ”

– 4Q246 [Eisenman & Wise (1992), p. 70.

Note: “when he arises he will destroy all the sons of Seth” – 4QDa Fragment 3, Column IV, Lines 7-10. Compare: “at the end of the forty years … upon the earth no wicked person will be found.” – 4Q171. Compare: “He will overthrow his evil generation and there will be [great wrath] when he arises.” – 4Q541. Jewish resistance fighters believed that a world ruler was about to “arise” out of Judea (Numbers 24, Josephus, War 3.399-407; compare: Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars 10.4, and Tacitus, The Histories 2.78 ff.).

The Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS) use the expressions of “stand up” and “arise” as metaphors for resurrection (Eisenman and Wise, p. 162, compare Daniel 12:13). Since this “arising” language permeates the way that they expressed their expectations, one may deduce what the DSS confirm, there was an expectation of a resurrection that would produce glorious victory (cf. 4Q541, 4Q246 and 4QDa with CD XX,



According to John 7:38, Jesus said, “‘If anyone thirst, let him come to me and drink. He who believes in me, as the scripture has said, “Out of his midst shall flow rivers of living water”.

it is reasonable to see Qumran as being the original source for this kind of material (“spring of holiness” 1QS x.12; “the spring of his justice”, “spring of glory” 1QS xi.5-6; “a spring in the mouth of your servant”, “a spring to correct” 1QH Column XXIII, Lines10-12; “the spring of water” 4Q428, Fragment 7, Line 11; “a spring of living waters” 4Q418, Fragment 103, Column II, Line 6; see Martinez, pp. 16, 18, 359, 367, 392; “the Well of living waters” Damascus Document B, line 34; “the fountain of knowledge” 1QH Hymn B, Line 18; “the fount of understanding” 1QH Hymn J, Line 25; “a fount of rivers”, “a spring of waters”, “the fountain of life”, “a spring of living waters” 1QH Hymn O, Lines 4, 12, 16; see André Dupont-Sommer, pp. 139, 206, 216, 225, 227, 228, 252).

The Hymn Scroll (4Q429 a.k.a. 4QHodayotc) has three comparable parables together in a short space. Fragment 1 (Column I, lines 1-2) starts with the parable of the Fishers of Men [Matthew 4:19; Mark 1:17]: “you made my lodging [with many fishermen, those who spread the net upon the surface ] of the sea, those who go hunting [the sons of iniquity].” (Martinez, p. 367). It continues with the parable of Gold purified by Fire [Zechariah 13]: “you placed him like] gold in the crucible, [under the effect of fire like purified silver in the furnace] of the jeweler to be refined [seven times.]” (Column II, Lines 2-3). Calming the Storm [Matthew 8:26] follows: “But you, my Go]d, have changed the storm to [calm] (line 5). Cf. “He stilled the great sea” (4Q541 Eisenman and Wise, p. 144).

Similar hymns have more examples: e.g., more Gold Purified by Fire (1QHodayot Column V, Line 16; CDb Column II, Line 3; Dupont-Sommer, pp. 139, 215) and more Fishers of Men (1QHodayot Column V, Lines 7-8; Dupont-Sommer, p. 214), etc.

4Q451: “I [sp]oke concerning it in parables” – Fragment 2, Column I, Line 3; “[Now] I [am proclai]ming to you parable[s]…rejoice. Behold, a wise man [will understand that I am seeing] and comprehending deep Mysteries, thus I am spea[king…] parable[s]” – Column II, Lines 5-6; Eisenman & Wise, pp. 144-145; Cf. Martinez, p. 269.

– The Good Shepherd [John 10:11] 4QDd Fragment 11, Column I, Line 6; 4Q254 Fragment 6, Line 2; cf. 4Q204 Fragment 4, Lines 1-11; Martinez, pp. 61, 216, 253.

– Build on the Rock [Luke 6:48] 1QS Column XI, Line 4; 4QSe Column II, Lines 11-14; 4Q254 Fragment 6, Line 2; Martinez, pp. 18, 26, 216.

– Sowing Wheat or Weeds [Luke 8:5] “Whoever sows goodness, harvests good, [and whoever sows evil, against him his see]d [turns.]” – 4Q213 Fragment 5, Column I, Lines 7-8; “a wise sower of secret wonders” – 1QH Column X, Line 13; “You have freed me from the zeal of the sowers of deceit” – Line 31; 1QH Column XI, Lines 7-9; Martinez, pp. 267, 329-330, 334; Eisenman and Wise, p. 140.

– Treasure in Heaven [Mark 10:21] (4Q285 Fragments 1-2, Line 4; 4Q213 Fragment 5, Column I, Line 22 and Fragment 3, Column II, Line 1; Martinez, pp. 123, 268-269).

– The Banquet Invitation [Luke 14:13] (4Q196 Fragment 2, Lines 11-13; Martinez, pp. 293; and Eisenman & Wise, p. 99).

– The Poor Inherit the Earth [Matthew 5:3] “For those who are blessed by him shall inherit the earth, but those who are cursed by him shall be cut off. Its interpretation concerns the congregation of the poor [for of them is] the inheritance of the whole world.” Lines 9-10; 1QMilhamah [The War Scroll] Column XI, Lines 9-13; Martinez, p. 204; Dupont-Sommer, pp. 186, 271-272, cf. pp. 267, 397.

– Seek and Find [Luke 11:10] “[it is Thy Covenant that I will seek], [for they that seek] it find it.” – 1QHodayot [The Hymn Scroll] Column XVII, Line 27; 4Q213-214 Fragment 4, Column II, Lines 4-7; Eisenman & Wise, p. 141; Dupont-Sommer, p. 251. Hidden Treasure [Luke 12:34] (4Q213-214 Fragment 4, Column I, Lines 7-8; Eisenman & Wise, p. 141).

– Stones Calling Out [Luke 19:40] (“the stones will call” – 4Q542 Fragment 3, Column II, Line 11; Eisenman & Wise, p. 151).

– What Exchange For Your Soul [Matthew 16:26] “Do not exchange your Holy Spirit for any Riches, because no price is worth [your soul.]” – 4Q416-418 Fragment 9 Column II Fragment 10 Column I, Lines 6-7; Eisenman & Wise, p. 253.

– The Light [John 9:5] (4Q542 Fragment 1, Column I, Line 1; Eisenman & Wise, p. 150).

– The Cornerstone [Mark 12:10] (1QS Column VIII, Line 7; 4QSd, Fragment 2, Column I, Line 2; 4Q259 [4QSe] Column II, Line 14; Dupont-Sommer, p. 91; Martinez, pp. 12, 23, 26).

– The Way [Matthew 3:3] (1QS Column VIII, Lines 13-15, 18; 1QHodayot [The Hymn Scroll] Column XII, Line 34; Dupont-Sommer, pp. 92, 95, 241).

– Clay in the Hand of the Divine Potter [Romans 9:21] (1QS Column XI, 21-22; 1QHodayot Column III, Line 24; Column IV, Line 29; Column X, Lines 3-4; Dupont-Sommer, pp. 103, 209, 213, 234).

– Turn Your Cheek [Luke 6:29] (1QHodayot Column IV, Line 36; Column IX, Line 12; Dupont-Sommer, pp. 214, 231).

– The Shoot [Luke 21:30] (1QHodayot Column VIII, Lines 8-10; Column X, Lines 25-26; Dupont-Sommer, pp. 227.



The DSS shows Pesher on the Torah and they make statements about people using Midrash. I see the NT doing the same in the gospels. Also many of the Parable sources seem to be found in the DSS. Beatitudes (4Q525) and the Lords Prayer (4Q216 2 9) are also found.

The DSS helps us understand the concepts of the NT. Messianism, Apocalypsetism, Eschatological end of days concepts. The DSS shows the development of these concepts. It also shows how a smaller sectarian sect outside the big two ( Pharisee and Sadducee) could have went on to evolve into Christianity.

One of my favourite videos on the DSS is by Prof. Schiffman.



*Who did Jesus think he was?, J.C.O’Neill, Brill, 1995

*Current Research and Technological Developments on Dead Sea Scrolls, Volume 20, edited by Parry & Ricks.

*The Death of the Teacher of Righteousness in Hebrews 13:12-23″ JHC 7/2 ( Fall 2000). J. C. O’Neill

*The Gate Of Heaven, Margaret Baker.

*The Great Angel, Margaret Baker.

*Eisenman and Wise: The Dead Sea Scrolls Uncovered (1992)

*Eschatology, Messianism and the Dead Sea Scrolls, Craig & Flint.

*The Essene writings of Qumran,Dupont-Sommer (1961)

*The Psalm of 4Q372 1 Within the Context of Second Temple Prayer, EILEEN M. SCHULLER

*Allegro, John M. (1956). “Further Messianic References in Qumran Literature”. Journal of Biblical Literature 75 (1956): 174-187.

*Allegro, John M. (1981). The Mystery of the Dead Sea Scrolls Revealed. Illustrated. New York: Gramercy Pub. Co.

*Allegro, John M. (1986). The Dead Sea Scrolls: A Reappraisal. Second Ed. Bungay, Suffolk, England: Penguin Books.

*Driver, G. R. (1965). The Judaean Scrolls: the Problem and a Solution. New York: Schocken Books.

*Martinez, Florentino Garcia (1994). Watson, Wilfred G. E., trans. The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated: the Qumran Texts in English. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

*Roth, Cecil (1965). The Dead Sea Scrolls: A New Historical Approach. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

*Thiering, Barbara (1993). Jesus the Man. Toronto, Ontario: Corgi Books.





English Translation of 11QMelchizedek

2nd Century BCE

The following English text was adapted from Florentino García-Martínez, The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated (The Qumran Texts in English) (2nd edition; Leiden, Netherlands: E. J. Brill and Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1996), 139-40.

Transliterated Hebrew words were inserted by Paul Sumner, based on the transcription of 11QMelch by Paul J. Kobelski, Melchizedek and Melchiresha (CBS Monographs 10; Washington, D.C.: Catholic Biblical Assn., 1981), 5-6.

Note: The ellipses in brackets […] indicate breaks in the original scroll fragments. All Bible references were added by García-Martínez. The line (not verse) numbers follow the original scroll fragments.

Column 2

1 [… ] your God […]

2 […] And as for what he said: Lev 25:13 “In this year of jubilee, [you shall return, each one, to his respective property,” as is written: Dt 15:2 “This is]

3 the manner (of effecting) the [release: every creditor shall release what he lent [to his neighbor. He shall not coerce his neighbour or his brother when] the release for God [has been proclaimed].”

4 [Its inter]pretation for the last days refers to the captives, about whom he said: Isa 61:1 “To proclaim liberty to the captives.” And he will make

5 their rebels prisoners […] and of the inheritance of Melchizedek, for […] and they are the inheri[tance of Melchi]zedek, who

6 will make them return. He will proclaim liberty for them, to free them from [the debt] of all their iniquities. And this will [happen]

7 in the first week of the jubilee which follows the ni[ne] jubilees. And the day [of atonem]ent is the end of the tenth jubilee

8 in which atonement will be made for all the sons of [God] and for the men of the lot of Melchizedek. [And on the heights] he will decla[re in their] favour according to their lots; for

9 it is the time of the “year of grace” for Melchizedek, to exa[lt in the tri]al the holy ones of God through the rule of judgment, as is written

10 about him in the songs of David, who said: Ps 82:1 “Elohim will stand up in the assem[bly of El,] in the midst of the gods he judges.” And about him he said: Ps 7:8-9 “Above it

11 return to the heights, God will judge the peoples.” As for what he sa[id: Ps 82:2 “How long will yo]u judge unjustly and show partiality to the wicked? Selah.”

12 Its interpretation concerns Belial and the spirits of his lot, who were rebels [all of them] turning aside from the commandments of God [to commit evil].

13 But, Melchizedek will carry out the vengeance of God’s judgements [on this day, and they shall be freed from the hands] of Belial and from the hands of all the sp[irits of his lot].

14 To his aid (shall come) all “the gods of [justice”; he] is the one [who will prevail on this day over] all the sons of God, and he pre[side over] this [assembly].

15 This is the day of [peace about which God] spoke [of old through the words of Isa]iah the prophet, who said: Isa 52:7 “How beautiful

16 upon the mountains are the feet of the messenger who announces peace, of the mess[enger of good who announces salvation], saying to Zion: ‘your Elohim [reigns’].”

17 Its interpetation: The mountains are the pro[phets …]

18 And the messenger is [the ano]inted of the spirit [mashiach haruach] about whom Dan[iel] spoke [“…until the time of (the/an) Anointed Prince [mashiach nagid] there will be seven weeks . . . after sixty-two weeks, (the/an) Anointed shall be cut off” Dan 9:25, 26 ]. [… and the messenger of]

19 good who announces salv[ation] is the one about whom it is written that [he will send him Isa 61:2-3 “to comfo[rt the afflicted, to watch over the afflicted ones of Zion”].

20 “To comfo[rt the afflicted,” its interpretation:] to instruct them in all the ages of the worl[d…]

21 in truth. […]

22 […] it has been turned away from Belial and it […]

23 […] in the judgments of God, as is written about him: Isa 52:7 “Saying to Zion: ‘your God rules’.” [“Zi]on” is

24 [the congregation of all the sons of justice, those] who establish the covenant, those who avoid walking [on the pa]th of the people. “Your God” is

25 [Melchizedek, who will fr]ee [them] from the hand of Belial. And as for what he said: Lev 25:9 “You shall blow the hor[n in every] land.”

Column 3 (only small pieces)

1 [Its interpretation …]

2 and you know […]

3 God […]

4 and many […]

5 […] Melchizedek […]

6 the law for them […] the hand […] and he will announce […]

7 they shall devour Belial with fire […] Belial, and they shall rebel […]

8 the desires of their hearts […]

9 the ramparts of Judah […] the ramparts of Je[rusalem…]

10-20 [minute traces]


The Pierced Messiah text 4Q285

(1) in the book of] Isaiah the prophet (Is. 10:34): ‘and hacked down will be [the thickets of the forest with an axe, and Lebanon (2) by a mighty one will f]all. And a shoot shall come forth from the stump of Jesse [… (3) ] the Branch of David, and they will enter into judgment with [ (4) ] and the Prince of the Congregation, the Bran[ch of David] will kill him [ (5) ]s and with wounds; and [the chief] Priest will order [ … (6) the s]lain Kittim…

“Son of god” text 4Q246 col2

1.He will be called the son of God, they will call him the son of the Most High. But like the meteors (<- This is the comet reference)

2. that you saw in your vision, so will be their kingdom. They will reign only a few years over

3. the land, while people tramples people and nation tramples nation.

4. Until the people of God arise; then all will have rest from warfare.

5. Their kingdom will be an eternal kingdom, and all their paths will be righteous. They will judge

6. the land justly, and all nations will make peace. Warfare will cease from the land,

7. and all the nations shall do obeisance to them. The great God will be their help,

8. He Himself will fight for them, putting peoples into their power,

9. overthrowing them all before them. God’s rule will be an eternal rule and all the depths of

10. [the earth are His].


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